Provisions

 
Restructuring costs and termination benefits
Environmental costs
Other long-term employee benefits
Other provisions
Total
      
Balance at 1 January 2015
43
28
47
29
147
Of which current
24
2
4
12
42
      
Changes in 2015:
     
- Additions
51
3
5
23
82
- Releases
(7)
-
-
(19)
(26)
- Uses
(48)
(4)
(2)
(7)
(61)
- Acquisitions
-
-
4
-
4
- Disposals
(4)
(1)
(9)
(1)
(15)
- Exchange differences
4
1
-
(2)
3
- Other reclassifications
-
-
(1)
6
5
      
Total changes
(4)
(1)
(3)
-
(8)
      
Balance at 31 December 2015
39
27
44
29
139
Of which current
28
2
3
8
41
      
Changes in 2016:
     
- Additions
59
28
1
13
101
- Releases
(3)
(2)
-
-
(5)
- Uses
(34)
(4)
(1)
(15)
(54)
- Exchange differences
1
-
-
-
1
      
Total changes
23
22
-
(2)
43
      
Balance at 31 December 2016
62
49
44
27
182
Of which current
35
7
3
9
54

In cases where the effect of the time value of money is material, provisions are measured at the present value of the expenditures expected to be required to settle the obligation. The discount rate used decreased from 2.0% to 1.7%. The balance of provisions measured at present value increased by €0.7 million in 2016 in view of the passage of time (2015: increase of €0.4 million).

The provisions for restructuring costs and termination benefits mainly relate to the costs of redundancy schemes connected to the dismissal and transfer of employees and costs of termination of contracts. These provisions have an average life of 1 to 3 years.

The provisions for environmental costs relate to soil clean-up obligations, among other things. These provisions have an average life of around 10 years.

The addition to the provision for environmental costs relates mainly to discontinued businesses in the US and the Netherlands, next to the existing soil remediation plans.

The provisions for other long-term employee benefits mainly relate to length-of-service and end-of-service payments. The average life of this provision is estimated to be between 10 and 12 years.

Several items have been combined under Other provisions, for example onerous contracts and legal risks. These provisions have an average life of 1 to 3 years.

The additions to the provisions for restructuring costs and termination benefits in 2016 mainly relate to the various restructuring projects (same as in 2015), in particular for the Support functions (€36 million) and the Engineering Plastics business (€14 million).