Net sales and costs

Net sales

 
2016
2015
   
Continuing operations
  
Goods sold
7,724
7,532
Services rendered
188
183
Royalties from ordinary activities
8
7
   
Total
7,920
7,722

Total costs


In 2016, total operating costs of continuing operations amounted to €7.2 billion, €0.2 billion lower than in 2015, when these costs stood at €7.4 billion. Total operating costs in 2016 included Cost of sales amounting to €5.3 billion (2015: €5.4 billion); gross margin as a percentage of net sales stood at 34% (2015: 30%).

Employee benefits costs

 
2016
2015
   
Continuing operations
  
Wages and salaries
1,420
1,365
Social security costs
177
181
Pension costs (see also Note 24)
131
122
Share-based compensation (see also Note 27)
24
23
   
Total
1,752
1,691

Depreciation, amortization and impairments

 
2016
2015
   
Continuing operations
  
Amortization of intangible assets
143
153
Depreciation of property, plant and equipment
317
322
Impairment losses
29
119
   
Total
489
594

Other operating income

 
2016
2015
   
Continuing operations
  
Release of provisions
19
18
Gain on sale of assets and activities
6
11
Gain on scrap, waste material, emission rights, royalties and licenses sold
-
2
Insurance benefits
31
7
Amendments / settlements pension plans
18
12
Release earn-out payments
16
2
Sundry
19
34
   
Total
109
86

Other operating expense

 
2016
2015
   
Continuing operations
  
Additions to provisions
74
74
Loss from the disposal or closure of assets and activities
1
-
Exchange differences
1
16
Acquisitions
2
6
Sundry
11
11
   
Total
89
107