Property, plant and equipment

 
Land and
buildings
Plant and
machinery
Other
equip-
ment
Under
construc-
tion
Not used for
operating activities
Total
Balance at 1 January 2015
      
Cost
2,155
5,097
234
669
20
8,175
Depreciation and impairment losses
925
3,293
160
110
14
4,502
       
Carrying amount
1,230
1,804
74
559
6
3,673
       
Changes in carrying amount:
      
- Capital expenditure
3
31
3
448
-
485
- Put into operation
69
238
15
(322)
-
-
- Acquisitions
32
28
4
1
-
65
- Disposals
(108)
(418)
(10)
(157)
2
(691)
- Depreciation
(74)
(238)
(20)
-
(2)
(334)
- Impairment losses
(12)
(185)
(2)
-
-
(199)
- Impairment reversals
1
-
-
-
-
1
- Exchange differences
53
112
1
17
-
183
- Reclassification to/from held for sale
(5)
(2)
-
-
-
(7)
- Other reclassifications
(3)
(3)
1
-
-
(5)
       
 
(44)
(437)
(8)
(13)
-
(502)
Balance at 31 December 2015
      
Cost
2,013
3,825
206
547
15
6,606
Depreciation and impairment losses
827
2,458
140
1
9
3,435
       
Carrying amount
1,186
1,367
66
546
6
3,171
       
Changes in carrying amount:
      
- Capital expenditure
2
26
4
390
-
422
- Put into operation
110
315
14
(439)
-
-
- Acquisitions
10
1
-
-
-
11
- Disposals
(2)
-
-
-
-
(2)
- Depreciation
(73)
(226)
(18)
-
-
(317)
- Impairment losses
-
(15)
-
-
-
(15)
- Impairment reversals
-
2
-
-
-
2
- Exchange differences
28
11
2
13
-
54
- Other reclassification
-
-
(2)
(3)
1
(4)
- Other changes
(2)
6
-
-
(1)
3
       
 
73
120
-
(39)
-
154
Balance at 31 December 2016
      
Cost
2,138
4,176
220
508
15
7,057
Depreciation and impairment losses
879
2,689
154
1
9
3,732
       
Carrying amount
1,259
1,487
66
507
6
3,325

There were no material finance lease agreements in 2016 (as was the case in 2015).

In 2016, impairment losses of €15 million were recognized on Property, plant and equipment (PPE). This mainly related to the impairment of PPE at DSM Engineering Plastics in the US (€10 million).

In 2015, impairment losses on PPE of €198 million were recognized. This included an impairment of €130 million relating to the disposal of Bulk Chemicals (see Note 3 'Change in the scope of consolidation'). Furthermore this included a €19 million impairment of a DSM Dyneema tape production line in the US, primarily used for vehicle protection. At DSM Resins & Functional Materials an impairment of €15 million was taken relating to the factory in Stanley (North Carolina, USA) and €10 million to PPE of DSM-AGI (see also Note 2 'Alternative performance measures').