Summary of significant accounting policies

Basis of preparation

DSM's consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) as adopted by the European Union and the provisions of section 362-8 of Book 2 of the Dutch Civil Code. The accounting policies applied by DSM comply with IFRS and the pronouncements of the International Financial Reporting Interpretation Committee (IFRIC) effective at 31 December 2017.

Consolidation

The consolidated financial statements comprise the financial statements of Royal DSM and its subsidiaries (together 'DSM' or 'group'). As a parent DSM is exposed, or has right to, the variable returns from its involvement with its subsidiaries and has the ability to affect the returns through its power over the subsidiary. The financial data of subsidiaries are fully consolidated. Non-controlling interests in the group's equity and profit and loss are stated separately. A joint arrangement is an entity in which DSM holds an interest and which is jointly controlled by DSM and one or more other venturers under a contractual arrangement. A joint arrangement can either be a joint venture where DSM and the other partner(s) have rights to the net assets of the arrangement or a joint operation where DSM and the partner(s) have rights to the assets, and obligations for the liabilities to the arrangement. For joint ventures the investment in the net assets is recognized and accounted for in accordance with the equity method. For a joint operation, assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses are recognized in the financial statements of DSM in accordance with the contractual entitlement or obligations of DSM.

Subsidiaries are consolidated from the acquisition date until the date on which DSM ceases to have control. From the acquisition date onwards, all intra-group balances and transactions and unrealized profits or losses from intra-group transactions are eliminated, with one exception: unrealized losses are not eliminated if there is evidence of an impairment of the asset transferred. In such cases an impairment of the asset is recognized.

Business combinations

Business combinations are accounted for using the acquisition method. The cost of an acquisition is measured as the aggregate of the consideration transferred, including liabilities incurred, measured at acquisition date fair value, and the amount of any non-controlling interest in the acquiree. Acquisition costs incurred are expensed.

As of the acquisition date identifiable, assets acquired, liabilities assumed and any non-controlling interest in the acquiree are recognized separately from goodwill. Identifiable assets acquired and the liabilities assumed are measured at acquisition date fair value. For each business combination, DSM elects whether it measures the non-controlling interest in the acquiree at fair value or at the proportionate share of the acquiree's identifiable net assets. Any contingent consideration payable is measured at fair value at the acquisition date.

Segmentation

Segment information is presented in respect to the group's operating segments about which separate financial information is available that is regularly evaluated by the chief operating decision maker. DSM has determined that Nutrition, Materials and the Innovation Center represent reportable segments in addition to Corporate Activities. The Managing Board decides how to allocate resources and assesses the performance of the clusters. Cluster performance is reported and reviewed down to the level of Adjusted EBITDA. The clusters are organized in accordance with the type of products produced and the nature of the markets served. The same accounting policies that are applied for the consolidated financial statements of DSM are also applied for the operating segments. Prices for transactions between segments are determined on an arm's length basis. Segment results, assets and liabilities include items directly attributable to a segment as well as those that can reasonably and consistently be allocated. Selected information on a country and regional basis is provided in addition to the information about operating segments.

Foreign currency translation

The presentation currency of the group is the euro.

Each entity of the group records transactions and balance sheet items in its functional currency. Transactions denominated in a currency other than the functional currency are recorded at the spot exchange rates prevailing at the date of the transactions. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in a currency other than the functional currency of the entity are translated at the closing rates. Exchange differences resulting from the settlement of these transactions and from the translation of monetary items are recognized in the income statement.

Non-monetary assets that are measured on the basis of historical costs denominated in a currency other than the functional currency continue to be translated against the rate at initial recognition and will not result in exchange differences.

On consolidation, the balance sheets of subsidiaries that do not have the euro as their functional currency are translated into euro at the closing rate. The income statements of these entities are translated into euro at the average rates for the relevant period. Goodwill paid on acquisition is recorded in the functional currency of the acquired entity. Exchange differences arising from the translation of the net investment in entities with a functional currency other than the euro are recorded in Other comprehensive income. The same applies to exchange differences arising from borrowings and other financial instruments in so far as those instruments hedge the currency risk related to the net investment. On disposal of an entity with a functional currency other than the euro, the cumulative exchange differences relating to the translation of the net investment are recognized in profit or loss.

Distinction between current and non-current

An asset (liability) is classified as current when it is expected to be realized (settled) within 12 months after the balance sheet date.

Intangible assets

Goodwill represents the excess of the cost of an acquisition over DSM's share in the net fair value of the identifiable assets and liabilities of an acquired subsidiary, joint venture or associate. Goodwill paid on acquisition of subsidiaries is included in intangible assets. Goodwill paid on acquisition of joint ventures or associates is included in the carrying amount of these entities. Goodwill recognized as an intangible asset is not amortized but tested for impairment annually and when there are indications that the carrying amount may exceed the recoverable amount. A gain or loss on the disposal of an entity includes the carrying amount of goodwill relating to the entity sold.

Intangible assets acquired in a business combination are recognized at fair value on the date of acquisition and subsequently amortized over their expected useful lives, which vary from 4 to 20 years.

Separately acquired licenses, patents, drawing rights and application software are carried at historical cost less straight-line amortization and less any impairment losses. The expected useful lives vary from 4 to 15 years. Costs of software maintenance are expensed when incurred. Capital expenditure that is directly related to the development of application software is recognized as an intangible asset and amortized over its estimated useful life (5-8 years).

Research costs are expensed when incurred. Development expenditure is capitalized if the recognition criteria are met and if it is demonstrated that it is technically feasible to complete the asset; that the entity intends to complete the asset; that the entity is able to sell the asset; that the asset is capable of generating future economic benefits; that adequate resources are available to complete the asset; and that the expenditure attributable to the asset can be reliably measured. Development expenditure is amortized over the asset's useful life. Development projects under construction are included under 'Development projects'.

Property, plant and equipment

Property, plant and equipment are measured at cost less depreciation calculated on a straight-line basis and less any impairment losses. Interest during construction is capitalized. Expenditures relating to major scheduled turnarounds are capitalized and depreciated over the period up to the next turnaround.

Property, plant and equipment are systematically depreciated over their estimated useful lives. The estimated remaining lives of assets are reviewed every year, taking account of commercial and technological obsolescence as well as normal wear and tear. The initially assumed expected useful lives are in principle as follows: for buildings 10-50 years; for plant and machinery 5-15 years; for other equipment 4-10 years. Land is not depreciated.

An item of property, plant and equipment is derecognized upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected to arise from the continued use or the sale of the asset. Any gain or loss arising on derecognition of the asset is recorded in profit or loss.

Leases

Finance leases, which transfer to the group substantially all the risks and benefits incidental to ownership of the leased item, are capitalized at inception of the lease at the fair value of the leased property or, if lower, at the present value of the minimum lease payments. All other leases are operating leases.

Lease payments for finance leases are apportioned to finance charges and reduction of the lease liability so as to achieve a constant rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability. Finance charges are included in interest costs. Capitalized leased assets are depreciated over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the asset or the lease term. Operating lease payments are recognized as an expense over the lease term.

Associates and joint ventures

An associate is an entity over which DSM has significant influence but no control or joint control, usually evidenced by a shareholding that entitles DSM to between 20% and 50% of the voting rights. A joint venture is an entity where DSM has joint control and is entitled to its share of the net assets and liabilities. Investments in associates and joint ventures are accounted for by the equity method, which involves recognition in the income statement of DSM's share of the associate's or joint venture's profit or loss for the year determined in accordance with the accounting policies of DSM. Any other results at DSM in relation to associated companies are recognized under Other results related to associates and joint ventures. DSM's interest in an associate or joint venture is carried in the balance sheet at its share in the net assets of the associate or joint venture together with goodwill paid on acquisition, less any impairment loss.

When DSM's share in the loss of an associate or joint venture exceeds the carrying amount of that entity, the carrying amount is reduced to zero. No further losses are recognized, unless DSM has responsibility for obligations relating to the entity.

Non-derivative financial assets and financial liabilities

DSM initially recognizes loans and receivables and debt securities on the date when they are originated. All other financial assets and financial liabilities are initially recognized on the date when DSM becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instrument. DSM derecognizes a financial asset when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the asset expire, or when it transfers the rights to receive the contractual cash flows in a transaction in which substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset are transferred, or when DSM neither transfers nor retains substantially all of the risks and rewards of ownership and does not retain control over the transferred asset. DSM derecognizes a financial liability when its contractual obligations are discharged or cancelled, or expire.

Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and the net amount is presented in the statement of financial position when DSM has a legal right to offset the amounts and intends either to settle them on a net basis or to realize the asset and settle the liability simultaneously.

Loans and long-term receivables are measured at fair value upon initial recognition and subsequently at amortized cost, if necessary after deduction for impairment. The proceeds from these assets and the gain or loss upon their disposal are recognized in profit or loss.

Other financial assets

Other financial assets comprise loans to associates and joint ventures, other participations, other receivables and other deferred items.

Other participations comprise equity interests in entities in which DSM has no significant influence; they are accounted for as available-for-sale securities. These other participations are measured against fair value, with changes in fair value being recognized in Other comprehensive income (Fair value reserve). A significant or prolonged decline of the fair value of an equity interest below cost represents an impairment, which is recognized in profit or loss. On disposal, the cumulative fair value adjustments of the related other participations are released from equity and included in the income statement. If a reliable fair value cannot be established, the other participations are recognized at cost. The proceeds from these other participations and the gain or loss upon their disposal are recognized in profit or loss.

Impairment of assets

When there are indications that the carrying amount of a non-current asset (an intangible asset or an item of property, plant and equipment) may exceed the estimated recoverable amount (the higher of its value in use and fair value less costs to sell), the possible existence of an impairment loss is investigated. If an asset does not generate largely independent cash flows, the recoverable amount is determined for the cash generating unit (CGU) to which the asset belongs. In assessing the value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market interest rates and the risks specific to the asset.

When the recoverable amount of a non-current asset is less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount is impaired to its recoverable amount and an impairment charge is recognized in profit or loss. An impairment loss is reversed when there has been a change in estimate that is relevant for the determination of the asset's recoverable amount since the last impairment loss was recognized.

All financial assets are reviewed for impairment. If there is objective evidence of impairment as a result of one or more events after initial recognition, an impairment loss is recognized in the income statement. Impairment losses for goodwill and other participations are never reversed.

Inventories

Inventories are stated at the lower of cost and net realizable value. The first in, first out (FIFO) method of valuation is used unless the nature of the inventories requires the use of a different cost formula, in which case the weighted average cost method is used. The cost of intermediates and finished goods includes directly attributable costs and related production overhead expenses. Net realizable value is determined as the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less the estimated costs of completion and the estimated costs necessary to make the sale. Products whose manufacturing cost cannot be calculated because of joint cost components are stated at net realizable value after deduction of a margin for selling and distribution efforts.

Current receivables

Current receivables are initially recognized at fair value plus any directly attributable transaction costs. Subsequent to initial recognition, they are measured at amortized cost using the effective interest method, which generally corresponds to nominal value, less an adjustment for bad debts.

Current investments

Current investments are initially recognized at fair value plus any directly attributable transaction costs. Subsequent to initial recognition, they are measured at amortized cost using the effective interest method. Deposits with banks with a maturity between 3 and 12 months are classified as current investments.

Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents comprise cash at banks and in hand and deposits held at call with banks with a maturity of less than three months at inception. Bank overdrafts are included in current liabilities. Cash and cash equivalents are measured at fair value.

Non-current assets and disposal groups held for sale

Non-current assets and disposal groups (assets and liabilities relating to an activity that is to be sold) are classified as 'held for sale' if their carrying amount is to be recovered principally through a sales transaction rather than through continuing use. The reclassification takes place when the assets are available for immediate sale and the sale is highly probable. These conditions are usually met as from the date on which a letter of intent or agreement to sell is ready for signing. Non-current assets held for sale and disposal groups are measured at the lower of carrying amount and fair value less costs to sell. Non-current assets held for sale are not depreciated or amortized. For transparency, non-current assets and disposal groups that will contribute to joint ventures are reported separately from other assets and liabilities held for sale.

Discontinued operations

Discontinued operations comprise those activities that were disposed of during the period or which were classified as held for sale at the end of the period, and represent a separate major line of business or geographical area that can be clearly distinguished for operational and financial reporting purposes.

Royal DSM Shareholders' equity

DSM's ordinary shares and cumulative preference shares are classified as Royal DSM Shareholders' equity. This is the case for the latter, as there is no mandatory redemption, and distributions to the shareholders are at the discretion of DSM. The price paid for repurchased DSM shares (treasury shares) is deducted from Royal DSM Shareholders' equity until the shares are cancelled or reissued. Treasury shares are presented in the treasury share reserve. When treasury shares are sold or reissued, the amount received is recognized as an increase in equity, and the result on the transaction is presented as share premium. Dividend to be distributed to holders of cumulative preference shares is recognized as a liability when the Supervisory Board approves the proposal for profit distribution. Dividend to be distributed to holders of ordinary shares is recognized as a liability when the Annual General Meeting of Shareholders approves the profit appropriation.

Provisions

Provisions are recognized when all of the following conditions are met: 1) there is a present legal or constructive obligation as a result of past events; 2) it is probable that a transfer of economic benefits will settle the obligation; and 3) a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation.

The probable amount required to settle long-term obligations is discounted if the effect of discounting is material. Where discounting is used, the increase in the provision due to the passage of time is recognized as interest costs.

Borrowings

Borrowings are initially recognized at fair value of the proceeds received, net of transaction costs. Subsequently, borrowings are stated at amortized cost using the effective interest method. Amortized cost is calculated taking into account any discount or premium. Interest expenses are recorded in profit or loss.

Where the interest rate risk relating to a long-term borrowing is hedged through a fair value hedge, and the hedge is effective, the carrying amount of the long-term loan is adjusted for changes in fair value of the interest component of the hedged loan.

Other current liabilities

Other current liabilities are measured at amortized cost, which generally corresponds to the nominal value.

Revenue recognition

Revenues from the sale of goods or the rendering of services are recognized upon the transfer of ownership or risk to the buyer. They are measured at the fair value of the consideration received. Net sales represent the invoice value less estimated rebates and cash discount, and excluding indirect taxes.

Income relating to the sale or licensing of technologies or technological expertise is recognized in the income statement according to the contractually agreed transfer of the rights and obligations associated with those technologies. This income is reported in Net sales when the income is part of the ordinary and recurring activities of the business and, if not, in Other operating income. Interest income is recognized on a time-proportion basis using the effective interest method. Dividend income is recognized when the right to receive payment is established.

Government grants

Government grants are recognized at their fair value if there is reasonable assurance that the grant will be received and all related conditions will be complied with. Cost grants are recognized as income over the periods necessary to match the grant on a systematic basis to the cost that it is intended to compensate. If the grant is an investment grant, its fair value is initially recognized as deferred income in Other non-current liabilities and then released to profit or loss over the expected useful life of the relevant asset.

Share-based compensation

The costs of option plans are measured by reference to the fair value of the options on the date on which the options are granted. The fair value is determined using the Black-Scholes model, taking into account market conditions linked to the price of the DSM share. The costs of these options are recognized in profit or loss (Employee benefits costs) during the vesting period, together with a corresponding increase in Equity in the case of equity-settled options or Other non-current liabilities in the case of cash-settled options (Share Appreciation Rights). No expense is recognized for options that do not ultimately vest, except for options where vesting is conditional upon a market condition, which are treated as vesting, irrespective of whether or not the market condition is satisfied, provided that all other performance conditions are met.

Performance shares and restricted share units (matching shares) are granted free of charge and vest after three years on the achievement of previously determined targets. The cost of performance shares and restricted share units is measured by reference to the fair value of the DSM shares on the date on which the performance shares and restricted share units were granted and is recognized in profit or loss (Employee benefits costs) during the vesting period, together with a corresponding increase in equity.

Emission rights

DSM is subject to legislation encouraging reductions in greenhouse-gas emissions and has been awarded emission rights (principally CO2 emission rights) in a number of jurisdictions. Emission rights are reserved for meeting delivery obligations and are recognized at cost (usually zero). Revenue is recognized when surplus emission rights are sold to third parties. When actual emissions exceed the emission rights available to DSM, a provision is recognized for the expected additional costs.

Alternative performance measures (APMs)

DSM uses Alternative performance measures to present and discuss DSM's financial results. To arrive at these APMs, adjustments are made to material items of income and expense arising from circumstances such as:

  • acquisitions/divestments;
  • restructuring;
  • impairments; and
  • other.

'Other' APM adjustments can be related to onerous contracts and litigation settlements. Other than items related to acquisition and integration costs incurred in the first year from the acquisition date (including non-recurring inventory value adjustments), the threshold is €10 million.

Income tax

Income tax expense is recognized in the income statement except to the extent that it relates to an item recognized directly in Other comprehensive income or Shareholders' equity.

Current tax is the expected tax payable or receivable on the taxable income for the year, using tax rates enacted at the balance sheet date, and any adjustment to tax payable with respect to previous years. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the expected tax consequences of temporary differences between the carrying amount of assets and liabilities and their tax base. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured at the tax rates that have been enacted or substantially enacted at the balance sheet date and are expected to apply when the related deferred tax assets are realized or the deferred tax liabilities are settled. Deferred tax assets, including assets arising from losses carried forward and tax credits, are recognized to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profits will be available against which the deductible temporary differences and unused tax losses can be utilized. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are stated at nominal value.

Deferred taxes are not provided for the following temporary differences: the initial recognition of goodwill; the initial recognition of assets or liabilities that affect neither accounting nor taxable profit; and differences relating to investments in subsidiaries to the extent that they will probably not reverse in the foreseeable future. Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are offset and presented net when there is a legally enforceable right to offset, and the assets and liabilities relate to income taxes levied by the same taxation authority.

Financial derivatives

The group uses financial derivatives such as foreign currency forward contracts and interest rate swaps to hedge risks associated with foreign currency and interest rate fluctuations. Financial derivatives are initially recognized in the balance sheet at fair value. Subsequently, financial derivatives, bank balances and deposits in foreign currency are valued against the rates applicable on the balance sheet closing date. Changes in fair value are recognized in profit or loss unless cash flow hedge accounting or net investment hedge accounting is applied. For the measurement basis, see Carrying amounts of the financial derivatives.

Changes in the fair value of financial derivatives designated and qualifying as cash flow hedges are recognized in Other comprehensive income (Hedging reserve) to the extent that the hedge is effective. Upon recognition of the related asset or liability, the cumulative gain or loss is transferred from the Hedging reserve and included in the carrying amount of the hedged item if it is a non-financial asset or liability. Any ineffective portion of the changes of the fair value of the derivative is recognized immediately in profit and loss. If the forecasted transaction is no longer expected to occur, the hedge no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting, the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated or exercised, or the designation is revoked, then hedge accounting is discontinued prospectively. If the forecast transaction is no longer expected to occur then the amount accumulated in equity is reclassified to profit or loss. If the hedged item is a financial asset or liability, the gain or loss is transferred to profit or loss. Changes in the fair value of financial derivatives designated and qualifying as net investment hedges are recognized in Other comprehensive income (Translation reserve) to the extent that the hedge is effective and the change in fair value is caused by changes in currency exchange rates. Accumulated gains and losses are released from Other comprehensive income and are included in profit or loss when the net investment is disposed of. Changes in the fair value of financial derivatives designated and qualifying as fair value hedges are immediately recognized in the income statement, together with any changes in the fair value of the hedged assets or liabilities attributable to the hedged risk.

Pensions and other post-employment benefits

DSM has both defined contribution plans and defined benefit plans. In the case of defined contribution plans, obligations are limited to the payment of contributions, which are recognized as Employee benefits costs. In the case of defined benefit plans, the aggregate of the value of the defined benefit obligation and the fair value of plan assets for each plan is recognized as a net defined benefit liability or asset. Defined benefit obligations are determined using the projected unit credit method. Plan assets are recognized at fair value. If the fair value of plan assets exceeds the present value of the defined benefit obligation, a net asset is only recognized to the extent that the asset is available for refunds to the employer or for reductions in future contributions to the plan. Defined benefit pension costs consist of three elements: service costs, net interest, and remeasurements. Service costs are part of Employee benefits costs and consist of current service costs. Past service costs and results of plan settlements are included in Other operating income or expense. Net interest is part of Financial income and expense and is determined on the basis of the value of the net defined benefit asset or liability at the start of the year, and on the interest on high-quality corporate bonds. Remeasurements are actuarial gains and losses, the return (or interest cost) on net plan assets (or liabilities) excluding amounts included in net interest and changes in the effect of the asset ceiling. These remeasurements are recognized in Other comprehensive income as they occur and are not recycled through profit or loss at a later stage.

Effect of new accounting standards

The International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) and IFRIC have issued new standards, amendments to existing standards and interpretations, some of which are not yet effective or have not yet been endorsed by the European Union.

In 2017, no new or amended standards that had an impact on the financial position, performance or disclosures of DSM had to be applied for the first time. Neither were new or amended standards adopted early and applied in 2017 for the first time.

Effect of forthcoming accounting standards not yet applied

The following accounting standards are forthcoming but are not yet being applied by DSM. They will be adopted on the required effective date.

IFRS 9 'Financial Instruments'

IFRS 9 will replace IAS 39 'Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement'. IFRS 9 will mainly impact the classification, measurement, and (de-)recognition of financial assets and financial liabilities; the impairment of financial assets by introducing an expected credit loss model; and DSM's hedge accounting practices.

The new standard is effective for annual reporting periods beginning on or after 1 January 2018.

Classification and Measurement

IFRS 9 contains three principal categories to classify financial assets: measured at amortized cost, fair value through other comprehensive income ('FVOCI'), and fair value through profit and loss ('FVTPL'). As such, IFRS 9 eliminates the existing IAS 39 categories of held to maturity, loans and receivables, and available for sale securities. The categorization under IFRS 9 takes place based on the business model for managing the financial assets and the contractual cash flow characteristics of the financial asset.

DSM assessed that the new classification and measurement requirements mainly affect its other participations, currently reported under 'Other financial assets'. Under its current accounting policies, DSM accounts for other participations as available-for-sale securities measured against fair value, with changes in fair value being recognized in OCI or at cost (see Other financial assets). Under IFRS 9, these other participations shall initially be measured at FVTPL. However, DSM will use the irrevocable election to present subsequent changes in the fair value, impairment losses, and gains or losses on disposal of these investments in OCI. Given the limited amount of other financial assets measured at cost the impact of re-measuring these assets to fair value is expected to be limited. The re-measurement to fair value of those instruments as per 1 January 2018 has not been completed.

For all other financial assets and financial liabilities, DSM assessed that the requirements in IFRS 9 will not significantly affect their classification and measurement. Financial instruments currently classified as held to maturity and measured at amortized cost will also be measured at amortized cost under IFRS 9; and financial instruments currently measured at FVTPL will continue to be measured on the same basis.

Impairment

Under IFRS 9, the 'incurred credit loss' model currently applied will be replaced by an expected credit loss (ECL) model. The application of the ECL model will result in the recognition of a small and therefore insignificant default credit loss risk for loans to third parties and associated parties. For trade receivables, the transition to the new model under the simplified approach will also not have a significant impact on the valuation.

Hedge Accounting

When initially applying IFRS 9, a company may choose as its accounting policy to continue to apply the hedge accounting requirements of IAS 39 instead of the requirements in IFRS 9. DSM has chosen to apply the new requirements of IFRS 9.
IFRS 9 requires DSM to ensure that hedge accounting relationships are aligned with DSM's risk management objectives and strategy and to apply a more qualitative and forward-looking approach to assessing hedge effectiveness. IFRS 9 also introduces new requirements on rebalancing hedge relationships and prohibiting voluntary discontinuation of hedge accounting. Under the new model, it is possible that more risk management strategies, particularly those involving hedging a risk component (other than foreign currency risk) of a non-financial item, will be likely to qualify for hedge accounting.

Transition

DSM will apply the new rules under IFRS 9 retrospectively from 1 January 2018. The group will use the practical expedient allowing it not to restate comparative information for prior periods with respect to classification and measurement changes.

IFRS 15 'Revenue from Contracts with Customers'

IFRS 15 provides a comprehensive framework for revenue recognition. The main principle underlying this new standard is that revenue is recognized upon the transfer of control of goods and services to the customer. IFRS 15 replaces the current accounting standards on revenue recognition, including IAS 11 'Accounting for Construction Contracts' and IAS 18 'Revenue'. The new standard is effective for annual reporting periods beginning on or after 1 January 2018.

The implementation of IFRS 15 affects both the timing of the revenue recognition and the amount of revenue recognized within DSM's revenue categories as outlined below. DSM's main revenue categories are 'goods sold', 'services rendered', and 'royalties from ordinary activities'.

During 2017, DSM performed a detailed impact assessment of IFRS 15 on its consolidated financial statements. DSM will adopt IFRS 15 using the cumulative effect method. Under this transition method, the cumulative impact of the adoption should be recognized in retained earnings as of 1 January 2018 and the comparatives will not be restated. DSM's assessment indicates that the initial effect of applying this standard will be immaterial. Also the new requirements under IFRS 15 will not have a significant impact on revenue recognition compared to the current policy of revenue recognition.

IFRS 16 'Leases'

IFRS 16 establishes a new model for lessee accounting that requires a lessee to recognize right-of-use assets and lease liabilities for the rights and obligations created by leases. Additionally, the nature of expenses related to leases will change, as IFRS 16 replaces the straight-line operating lease expense with a depreciation charge for right-of-use assets and interest expense on lease liabilities. Furthermore, the classification of cash flows will also be affected as operating lease payments under IAS 17 are presented as operating cash flows; whereas under the IFRS 16 model, the lease payments will be split into a principal and an interest portion which will both be presented as financing cash flows. The new standard is effective for annual reporting periods beginning on or after 1 January 2019.

During 2017, DSM performed a preliminary impact assessment of IFRS 16 on its consolidated financial statements, but the company has not yet completed its detailed assessment. The standard will primarily affect the accounting for DSM's operating leases. The impact assessment performed indicates that the majority of these arrangements will meet the definition of a lease under IFRS 16, and hence DSM will recognize a lease liability and a corresponding right-of-use asset in respect of these leases. Based on the preliminary impact assessment of IFRS 16, DSM expects that the recognition of the leases will result in an impact of around 2% of the balance sheet total. Yet the actual impact of applying IFRS 16 on the financial statements in the period of initial application will depend on future economic conditions, including DSM's borrowing rate at 1 January 2019, the composition of DSM's lease portfolio at that date, DSM's latest assessment of whether it will exercise any lease renewal options, and the extent to which DSM chooses to use practical expedients and recognition exemptions, as well as the transition approach.

New IFRIC interpretations are not expected to have a material effect on the financial statements of DSM.