Net sales and costs

Net sales

 
2017
2016
   
Continuing operations
  
Goods sold
8,451
7,724
Services rendered
173
188
Royalties
8
8
   
Total
8,632
7,920

Total costs


In 2017, total operating costs amounted to €7.8 billion, €0.6 billion higher than in 2016, when these costs stood at €7.2 billion. Total operating costs in 2017 included Cost of sales amounting to €5.7 billion (2016: €5.3 billion); gross margin as a percentage of net sales stood at 34% (2016: 34%).

Employee benefits costs

 
2017
2016
   
Continuing operations
  
Wages and salaries
1,452
1,420
Social security costs
181
177
Pension costs (see also Note 24)
112
131
Share-based compensation (see also Note 27)
23
24
   
Total
1,768
1,752

Depreciation, amortization and impairments

 
2017
2016
   
Continuing operations
  
Amortization of intangible assets
146
143
Depreciation of property, plant and equipment
318
317
Impairment losses
38
29
   
Total
502
489

Other operating income

 
2017
2016
   
Continuing operations
  
Release of provisions
6
19
Gain on sale of assets and activities
20
6
Insurance benefits
4
31
Amendments/settlements pension plans
20
18
Earn-out payments and other settlements
28
16
Sundry
26
19
   
Total
104
109

Other operating expense

 
2017
2016
   
Continuing operations
  
Additions to provisions
87
74
Exchange differences
8
1
Acquisitions
3
2
Sundry
14
12
   
Total
112
89